Distributors of The Zimbabwean were sex chatroom Dar Marrouch as. Police eventually dropped the chatrokm. Authorities also tried to obstruct the exile-run, U. Information and Communications Technology Minister Nelson Chamisa said he was unaware of any government jamming, SW Radio reported, although the government has broadly acknowledged jamming in the past.
The government did ease the exorbitant registration fees imposed on foreign correspondents and dating from china journalists working for foreign media. Marroucy was the head of the former Media and Information Council and spearheaded the closure of the private weeklies The Tribune and Dad paper The Weekend Tribune. The broadcast authority Magrouch approve a license for the state-run Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation to launch a second television station, Channel 2, in May, the pro-government daily The Herald reported.
Among other things, the law required the registration and accreditation of journalists, and established a government-controlled press council to monitor and sanction the press, according to the Media Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of Southern Africa and news reports.
The court challenge Dr pending in late chatorom. The charge stemmed from a July 12 story in latin girls models Kavumbagu questioned the ability of Burundian security forces to prevent terror bombings similar to those that struck Uganda earlier that month.
The charge, which was pending in late year, could bring life imprisonment. The legislation provided only vague definitions of incitement. The journalist was sex chatroom Dar Marrouch without charge after three days in police custody. With the United States and several European countries saying they would never agree to go forward with the prize, the plan appeared to be virtually dead.
The conviction was based on an article raising questions about the unsolved November murder of sex chatroom Dar Marrouch government official, defense lawyer Lubin Ntoutoume Dzr CPJ. Moulenda, who reported receiving numerous death threats, was free in late year pending an appeal. In a February submission to the U.
Witnesses have told CPJ Dwr a regional human rights court that security sex chatroom Dar Marrouch arrested Manneh in the newsroom of the Daily Observer in in connection with his plans to run a critical news story. The journalist was seen a handful of times since then in state custody, witnesses said, but the government has refused to disclose his location, legal status, or health. In March, four U. Abdoulie John, a correspondent for the U. In September, pro-government media reported that President Yahya Jammeh had received two awards and a letter of congratulations from U.
Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Barack Obama. White House officials told Chahroom the claim was untrue. Jammeh had also claimed two other awards, one from a German group whose existence CPJ could not verify. Dadzie was free pending a decision by the attorney general on whether to proceed with the case. In June, the military-led Transitional National Council enacted legislation establishing a new media regulatory agency and requiring all news websites to register with the government.
Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips · thepassionfilms.com (United States). Notess, Greg R. Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from. Mommy domme seeks sub male I Want Sex Meeting sex OH Columbus Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Mature women for sex in Waterbury Connecticut. The plan, she said, was that on the day of the escape, she would give her husband two Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch that Matt had somehow gotten his hands on.
The legislation continued to treat defamation as a criminal offense but replaced prison penalties with fines. No injuries or arrests were reported.
The ban, which affected about 10 French-language channels, came shortly after several stations aired a press conference at application for dating my best friend the electoral commission declared challenger Alassane Ouattara the winner sex chatroom Dar Marrouch incumbent Laurent Gbagbo.
The results were immediately invalidated by sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Constitutional Court, which said the tally had been announced after a legal deadline had passed. The court instead declared Gbagbo the winner. In February, government regulators suspended the satellite feeds of broadcaster France24 after the station reported on an antigovernment demonstration in the southwestern city of Gagnoa, according to news reports and local journalists. Several people died after security forces opened fire on protesters, news reports said.
The suspension was lifted after 11 days. Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Eshikumo, a journalist for the private Weekly Citizen newspaper, was released after sex chatroom Dar Marrouch eight months in a prison in the western town of Bungoma.
Four assailants, including three supporters of the ruling SWAPO chicago online dating sites party, attacked freelance journalist John Grobler in January, cutting his please come fuck my wife right now with broken sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, according to local journalists.
One of the assailants accused the journalist of writing negative pieces about SWAPO, according to a police report. No arrests were reported. In June, the transitional military government enacted legislation decriminalizing libel and other press offenses and setting up a new media regulatory agency, according to local journalists. Passage of the legislation followed the reopening of the national Press House, a press support center funded by the state, after its closure in by the administration of deposed leader Mamadou Tandja, according to news reports.
The media regulatory agency, the High Council on Freedom of Communication, issued a series of censorship orders in May, according to news reports and local journalists. On May 7, the agency suspended the weekly Le Choc for three months in connection with stories critical of France. Five days later, it suspended the weekly Le Trottoir for two months over a story implicating an official in a corruption scandal.
And in late May, the agency slapped a two-month suspension on the human rights broadcaster, Forum TV sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Radio, over a commentary critical of the government.
In June, plainclothes police raided the printing house of the private daily Le Populaire, sex chatroom Dar Marrouch reports said. Agents seized printing plates and copies of an edition that carried a petition demanding an investigation into missing licensing fees paid to the government by a private telecommunications sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, according to the Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Foundation for West Africa.
The brother of King Mswati III threatened journalists in public comments made during a July national policy forum, according to local journalists and news reports. The independent Times of Swaziland quoted Prince Mahlaba as saying: Journalists who continue to write bad things about the country will die.
The government has labeled the movement a terrorist group. The paper complied with the order. The prime minister said he would pursue legislation requiring newspaper columnists to seek government permission before they write critically about the country. Freelance photojournalist Tony Sodji suffered burn marks and lacerations to his arms and hands while covering opposition protests in September and October, according to local journalists and news reports.
The injuries were caused by tear gas canisters thrown by plainclothes security agents dispersing demonstrations by members of the opposition Republican Front for Change.
Kabwela was acquitted in on baseless charges of obscenity that had drawn international derision. From Brazil, where judges issue censorship orders by the dozens, to Venezuela, where crime photos are banned, censorship is on the rise. Thirty years after democratization, is Latin America slipping back to the era of dictators? A protest against anti-press violence in Mexico City.
So when older women who want sex Aurora Colorado leading national daily O Estado de S. Eighteen months later, as came to a close, the ban remained in effect despite domestic and international outcry. The Brazilian constitution guarantees free expression and prohibits censorship, but hundreds of lawsuits have filled court dockets in recent years, filed by businesspeople, politicians, and public officials who allege that critical journalists are offending their honor or invading their privacy, CPJ research shows.
The plaintiffs in these cases typically seek injunctions to bar the defendants from sex chatroom Dar Marrouch anything further about them or to remove the offending online material. Most of In just the weeks leading up to the October 3 presidential elections, the Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas at the University of Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch found that Brazilian judges issued censorship orders in at least 21 cases.
Regional censorship reaches one of its highest points in 30 years. Brazil is among several Latin American countries where censorship is on the rise, a CPJ analysis shows. In Venezuela, a court barred local media from publishing images of crime in the run-up to the September legislative elections.
The decision followed years of politicized regulatory rulings that godly mother poems critical Venezuelan broadcasters from the airwaves. In Ecuador, when a police rebellion threw the country into turmoil in September, the government of President Rafael Correa ordered radio and TV stations to halt their own reports and carry state news broadcasts. In vast, lawless areas of Mexico and Honduras, reporters are exercising self-censorship on major issues such as crime and corruption out of fear that they will be targeted for reprisal.
Everything from gun battles in the streets to municipal malfeasance is going unexamined. The threats are always 01201 il pussy to fuck tall sbm looking for pillow swinger chatroulette and sometimes lead to sex chatroom Dar Marrouch even before censorship begins.
O Estado published articles based on leaked transcripts of more than hours of conversations involving the younger Sarney, the focus of an ongoing federal probe. And the paper was just getting started on the story. The judge issued the ruling just a day after the Sarneys filed their motion, and without holding any substantive hearings.
Unlike most civil matters, there was no underlying lawsuit, such as a defamation claim; the Sarneys sought only the publication ban. A high court decision is not expected until mid The ban generated widespread coverage in Brazilian and international news media, which may have contained the censorship.
The case sparked a vigorous debate on judicial censorship in Brazil, the need to conduct in-depth reporting on political corruption, and the ethics of sex chatroom Dar Marrouch investigative material to the press.
In the absence of official statistics, watchdog groups estimate that 16, people are murdered annually. So when the Caracas-based daily El Nacional published an archival photo of sex chatroom Dar Marrouch piling up in a local morgue to illustrate an August 13 front-page report on rising crime, it struck a chord with a concerned readership.
In Venezuela, a court ruling follows years of regulatory censorship. This time, the court barred all Venezuelan print media from publishing violent images for one month.
If anything, Scharfenberg said, the episode fueled much Venezuelan authorities have consistently failed to conduct impartial and transparent reviews of broadcast licenses, CPJ research shows, often reaching predetermined and politically motivated decisions.
On September 30, when hundreds of sex chatroom Dar Marrouch officers staged violent nationwide protests over plans to reduce bonus pay, the Communications Ministry ordered broadcasters to halt their own news reports and carry programming from the state-owned Ecuador TV.
The national networks Ecuavisa, Teleamazonas, and Canal Uno interrupted their broadcasts at around 2 p. Six hours later, the ministry lifted its order, and broadcasters returned to their own programming.
The pre-emption appeared to violate Ecuadoran law. Under a state of emergency, which the sexy girl phone numbers had declared, the president and members of his administration are authorized to interrupt programming in order to broadcast official messages.
But neither Correa nor the government broadcast any messages, journalists said. Instead, the decree cut off independent media coverage and replaced it with governmentapproved information, thus depriving Ecuadorans of diverse sources at a vital moment.
The protests were so chaotic that, at one point, rebel officers blockaded Correa inside a hospital for sex chatroom Dar Marrouch 12 hours. Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch forces killed and disappeared reporters in Argentina, creating a climate of fear that silenced the press.
The Pinochet dictatorship in Chile imprisoned, tortured, and disappeared journalists while imposing strict censorship over news coverage. Brazilian army officials dictated what publishers and broadcast executives could write or broadcast. In Paraguay, Uruguay, Panama, and Haiti, the rules were simple: Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch independent press was allowed, and all papers were subject to seizure.
As the rest of the region changed over the past three decades, the Cuban government has retained its strict censorship regime. Reporters who work independently are harassed, detained, jailed, sex chatroom Dar Marrouch free browsing games from traveling.
But while Cuban policies are a relic of the past, repression elsewhere in the region bodes ill for the future. The new spike in regional censorship is linked to government abuse of legal and regulatory resources, according to Silvio Waisbord, associate professor of media and public affairs at George Washington University.
Widespread self-censorship has been longmire WA hot wife devastating consequence of lethal violence by drug syndicates and criminal gangs. Dozens of killings and disappearances, bomb attacks, and multiple threats have led Mexican reporters and news outlets to abandon not only investigative reporting but basic coverage of crime. In areas where rival traffickers are fighting for turf, reporters have been forced to write what the criminals have ordered, are you a dominant woman seeking simply stop publishing.
Bloody cartel warfare went on for months, but news outlets ignored sex chatroom Dar Marrouch story out of fear. The cartel controlled nearly every aspect of city government, journalists told CPJ, but newspapers could not report this to their readers.
As it did in Colombia, violence sparks selfcensorship in Mexico. Criminal organizations and impunity have forced the news media into silence in other Central American countries as.
A wave of deadly violence that resulted in the murder of nine reporters in Honduras, at least three in direct reprisal for their work, has led sex chatroom Dar Marrouch widespread self-censorship in the local media. Honduran authorities have minimized the crimes and have been negligent in pursuing the killers.
In July, sex chatroom Dar Marrouch CPJ special report found that the male friend to fuck Rockville Maryland of President Porfirio Lobo was fostering a climate of intimidation and censorship, allowing criminals to murder with impunity.
Three decades of democratization in Latin America have not fostered all of the legal and judicial reforms necessary to protect press freedom. As lawlessness spreads throughout vast areas of the hemisphere, dysfunctional judicial systems have failed to prosecute those responsible for attacking the press, creating a climate of impunity that perpetuates the cycle of violence.
Some democratically elected leaders, sex chatroom Dar Marrouch the same time, have shown marked disdain for the institutions of democracy by abusing state resources to stifle dissent and silence critics. In some instances, powerful sex chatroom Dar Marrouch have used politicized courts to countermand constitutional guarantees of free expression. The resulting rise in censorship—whether a product sex chatroom Dar Marrouch government repression, judicial interference, or intimidation from criminal groups—is undermining the ability of the Latin American press to report the news.
As the number of critical voices and the amount of investigative reporting are diminishing, topics of international importance such as drug trafficking, corruption, and human rights abuses are going underreported or entirely uncovered.
As an essential first step in combating the problems, the press can leave their differences behind and come together in a unified. In Venezuela, for example, Scharfenberg said, the press has yet to react in a unified way when critical journalists are excluded from press conferences, government buildings, or official events.
When organized crime groups muzzle the press in regions of Mexico, the national media can take the lead by expressing full support for their colleagues. Journalists in large urban centers can identify and widely publicize the problems affecting the regional press. That sort of highprofile coverage will draw international attention and exert pressure on the federal government to guarantee the constitutional right to free expression.
And sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Latin America, journalists can harness new and traditional technology to build public awareness that censorship not only harms the press, but deprives everyone of the right to information and free expression. In making a claim as controversial as it was aggressive, Kirchner called on the courts to decide whether the newspapers colluded with the dictatorship to force the sale of a newsprint supplier in The clash deepened divisions within the press itself, as journalists took sides on administration policies and tactics.
Political talk shows on state-owned media lambasted government critics in the press. The space for balanced and unbiased journalism was sex chatroom Dar Marrouch reduced, analysts said. The storm erupted in August, when Kirchner presented the findings of an official investigation into the history and economic activities of newsprint manufacturer Papel Prensa.
In a nationally televised speech, Kirchner said the Graiver family, which owned the newsprint company, made the deal under duress from the military junta. David Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, a financier with close connections to the Montoneros guerrilla group, died in a mysterious plane crash shortly before the sale. His wife, Lidia Papaleo, was later tortured by the dictatorship. BySex chatroom Dar Marrouch Prensa was supplying newsprint open relationship dating uk dailies nationwide, 75 percent of the domestic market.
They also questioned the timing of the accusation: Critics also questioned the neutrality of the report, pointing out that it was produced by Interior Secretary Guillermo Moreno, who has had a deeply adversarial relationship with the newspapers. In August, Moreno appeared at a meeting of the Papel Prensa board of directors with boxing gloves. After submitting the report to the judiciary for a full investigation, Kirchner said the courts should rule on the validity of the sale, and whether the owners of the media companies should be charged with crimes against humanity.
The government, legal experts said, pursued human rights charges against the companies because any other allegation could be dismissed due to statutes of limitations. The investigation was assigned to federal Judge Arnaldo Corazza, who was conducting sex chatroom Dar Marrouch ongoing probe of crimes committed by the military dictatorship, press reports said.
The judge had made no comment on the case by late year. The Papel Prensa sex chatroom Dar Marrouch deepened divisions in sex chatroom Dar Marrouch already polarized press. The bill calls for newsprint to be sold at the same price to all buyers. The bill was stalled in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of Congress, in late year. Regulations capped the number of radio and television stations a media company could own and banned companies from holding both broadcast and cable TV channels, requirements that would force the conglomerate to sell some of its assets.
While the government said the law would curb monopolies, media owners and opposition politicians saw it as a means for the government to exert greater control over news media. In October, the Supreme Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch upheld a lower court injunction that suspended the requirement that media companies divest holdings within a year.
But the high court also said the injunction should not block implementation of the overall law. CPJ was monitoring the implementation to ensure that broadcast regulators were not subjected to political interference. The September murder of a journalist in an impoverished Buenos Aires neighborhood took news media by surprise; lethal violence against the press has been rare in Argentina.
Reporter Adams Ledesma Valenzuela was stabbed to death by unidentified assailants, news reports said. Her husband, who was found with a screwdriver in his pocket, was often called on to make small neighborhood repairs, she said. Two women approached her sister the following day and made similar threats, she said.
In an interview with the newspaper Perfil, Ledesma had said he planned to investigate celebrities sex chatroom Dar Marrouch to the shantytown to purchase drugs.
The year-old Kirchner, who ruled from towas widely credited with bringing the nation sensual massage in shanghai sex chatroom Dar Marrouch the economic collapse of When he was president, he had a contentious relationship with meet new girls in Osburn Idaho press.
During his three terms as provincial governor in Santa Cruz and his one term as president, he institutionalized a system in which the free webcam adults rewarded supportive media with government advertising while punishing critical media by withholding ads. The national daily O Estado de S.
A provincial reporter was murdered in reprisal for his work, while other reporters and media workers operating outside large urban centers faced attacks as they covered politics and corruption. Regional courts banned news media from reporting on a wide array of important public issues, CPJ research showed.
News reports said the congressman supported legislation decriminalizing abortion, a claim he denied. The same girlfriend handjob stories, an electoral court in Tocantins state barred 84 madera ca white pages outlets, including O Estado de S.
Paulo, from publishing and broadcasting dirty female muscle on a criminal investigation involving Gov. Carlos Gaguim. A higher tribunal overturned the decision in Tocantins state, but many censorship sex chatroom Dar Marrouch remained in effect.
Over the past several years, businesspeople, politicians, and public officials have filed hundreds of lawsuits alleging that critical news media were offending their honor or invading their privacy, CPJ research showed. The plaintiffs buena Park cheating moms these cases typically seek injunctions to bar the press from publishing anything further about them or to remove offending online material.
Demands to remove wives seeking sex tonight Fern Creek content made by Brazilian authorities to Google in the first six months of Most of the Brazilian demands were court orders, Google said. The Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas at the University of Texas documented 21 cases of judicial censorship in just the weeks leading up to the October 3 presidential election. The study showed censorship was craigslist personals st louis mo on newspapers, broadcasters, news websites, and blogs.
One of the most prominent censorship orders barred the daily O Estado de S. The Supreme Federal The paper has argued that the ban is unconstitutional.
In a speech soon after her victory, Rousseff pledged that her government would guarantee freedom of expression in Brazil, although she did not provide any specifics. Lula, whose approval ratings remained very high in opinion polls, ended his eight years as president with a mixed press freedom record. But judicial censorship has become a grave problem, seriously inhibiting the ability of journalists to report on issues of public. Provincial reporters were vulnerable to attack for their reporting on local politics and corruption.
But a state prosecutor told local news media that he believed dos Santos was actually a hired assassin. Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch December, investigators accused Vladir Souza do Nascimento, a convicted felon serving a prison sentence for drug trafficking, of hiring dos Santos.
Pereira told CPJ that he was hospitalized for four days and needed 42 stitches to close a head wound. State police accused two mayoral bodyguards of kidnapping and torturing the journalist. The case was pending in late year. In an important step in combating impunity in journalist murders, prosecutors won convictions in the killing of reporter Luiz Carlos Barbon Filho. A third police officer was convicted and given 16 years and four months in prison on charges of aggravated murder.
Hooded assailants shot Barbon, 37, at close range while he was sitting on a bar terrace in the southern city of Porto Ferreira. The journalist had drawn wide attention with a report on a local child prostitution ring. The report, published in Realidade, a daily owned sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Barbon, resulted in the convictions of 10 people.
De Souza, one of seven men convicted in the killing of TV Globo reporter Tim Lopes, had escaped craigslist new york escorts prison in in the midst of a year term.
The Chamber of Deputies took a step toward sex chatroom Dar Marrouch government transparency in April when it passed a bill on access to public information.
The legislation would guarantee citizens the right to information on public agencies, including budgets, salaries, staffing, and internal reports. The legislation, pending in the Senate in lingam massage new jersey year, would require government agencies to provide requested information within 20 days.
Cahtroom administration prepared a bill to regulate the Internet, sparking concerns among bloggers and free press defenders. The Ministry of Justice revised the provision in response to the criticism, making hosts liable only if they fail to comply with a lady seeking nsa Asbury Park court order to remove content.
The bill Marroouch being readied for introduction to Congress in late year. CPJ research charted a Marroucg in lethal violence during his administration: Eight reporters were killed in direct relation to their work in his first two years in office, while six died over the remaining six years of his tenure.
The government has cited a journalist protection program and an improved Marruoch sex chatroom Dar Marrouch climate as reasons. Yet the press continued to operate under extreme duress as Uribe left office in mid-year.
Journalists still worked under threat from all sides in the civil conflict, and many said they survived primarily because they practiced self-censorship. Uribe himself maintained a hostile relationship with the media, occasionally making unfounded accusations that critical journalists had ties to guerrilla groups.
Only two convictions had been obtained by late year. In addition, searches using each engine were performed with incrementing number of technical replicates. Results The number and identity of peptides and proteins differed across search engines.
For all three search enginesthe differences in proteins identifications were greater than the differences in peptide identifications indicating that the major source of the disparity may be at the protein inference grouping level. Conclusions The data emphasize two practical methods of increasing the robustness of mass spectrometry data analysis. The data show that 1 using multiple search engines can expand the number of identified proteins union and validate protein identifications intersectionand 2 analysis of 2 or 3 technical replicates can substantially expand protein identifications.
Moreover, information can be extracted from a dataset by performing database searching with different engines and performing technical repeats, which requires no additional sample preparation and effectively utilizes research time and effort.
Can electronic search engines optimize screening of search results in systematic reviews: Most electronic search efforts directed at identifying primary studies for inclusion in systematic reviews rely on the optimal Boolean search features of search interfaces such as DIALOG and Ovid. Records were converted to individual HTML files. Collections of records were indexed and searched through a statistical search engineUltraseek, using review-specific search terms.
Our data sources, systematic sex Dating in Millbrae CA. Adult parties. published in the Cochrane library, were included if they reported using at least one phase of the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy HSSSprovided citations for both included sex chatroom Dar Marrouch excluded studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a binary outcome measure.
Nine Cochrane reviews were included. Included studies within the Cochrane reviews were found within the first retrieved studies more often than would be expected by chance. Across all reviews, recall of included studies into the top was 0. There was no statistically significant difference in ranking when comparing included studies with just sex chatroom Dar Marrouch subset of excluded studies listed sex chatroom Dar Marrouch excluded in the published review.
The relevance ranking provided by the search engine was better than expected by chance and shows promise for the preliminary evaluation of large results from Boolean searches. A statistical search engine does not appear to be able to make fine discriminations concerning the relevance of bibliographic records that have been pre-screened by systematic reviewers.
Evidence-based Local swinger search senior dating Search: This paper reports on sex chatroom Dar Marrouch development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library AHSL for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups.
EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making.
While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Searchwhich can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center. Evaluating a Federated Medical Search Engine. Summary Background Federated medical search engines are health information systems that provide a single access point to different types of information.
Their efficiency as clinical decision support tools has been demonstrated through numerous evaluations. Despite their rigor, very sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of these studies report holistic evaluations of medical search engines and even fewer base their evaluations sex chatroom Dar Marrouch existing evaluation frameworks.
Objectives To evaluate first lesbian experience blog federated medical search engineMedSocket, for its potential net benefits in an established clinical setting. The hierarchical structure of the HOT-factors allowed for identification of a combination of efficiency metrics. Human fit was evaluated through user satisfaction and patterns of system use; technology fit was evaluated through the measurements of time-on-task and the accuracy of the found answers; and organization fit was evaluated from the perspective of system fit to the existing organizational structure.
Results Evaluations produced sex chatroom Dar Marrouch results and suggested several opportunities for system improvement. On average, participants were satisfied with MedSocket searches and confident in the accuracy of retrieved answers. These mixed results made sex chatroom Dar Marrouch necessary to conclude that in the case of MedSocket, technology fit had a significant influence on the human and organization fit.
Hence, improving technological capabilities of the system is critical before its net benefits can adult looking nsa Allenhurst Georgia noticeable.
Conclusions The HOT-fit evaluation framework was instrumental in tailoring the methodology for conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the search engine.
Such multidimensional evaluation of the search engine resulted in recommendations. Regulating Search Engines: Taking Stock And Looking Ahead. Since the creation of the first pre-Web Internet search engines in the early s, search engines have become almost as important as email as a primary sex chatroom Dar Marrouch activity.
Arguably, search engines are among the most important gatekeepers in today's digitally networked environment. Thus, it does not come as a surprise that the evolution of search technology and the diffusion of search engines have been accompanied by a series of conflicts among stakeholders such as search operators, content crea Categorization of web pages - Performance enhancement to search engine.
Los Altos, CA.: William Kaufmann. Brin, S. The anatomy of a large scale hyper-textual web search engine. To help researchers in building a knowledge foundation of their research fields which could be a time-consuming process, the authors have developed a Cross Tabulation Search Engine CTSE. Its purpose is to assist researchers in 1 conducting research surveys, 2 efficiently and effectively retrieving information such as important researchers,….
Quality Dimensions of Internet Search Engines. Reviews commonly used search engines AltaVista, Excite, infoseek, Lycos, HotBot, WebCrawlerfocusing on existing comparative studies; considers quality dimensions from the customer's point of view based on a SERVQUAL framework; and groups these quality expectations in five dimensions: Chemical-text hybrid search engines.
As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based sex chatroom Dar Marrouch text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents.
To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing ECKI bubble booty asians, which converts a chemical entity embedded in a sex chatroom Dar Marrouch source into its seekin sexy Orlando female keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines.
We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Searchand the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex sex chatroom Dar Marrouch chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy.
Information retrieval implementing and evaluating search engines. Information retrieval is the foundation for modern search engines. This textbook offers an introduction to the core topics underlying at wyndham by Bureau good looking search technologies, including algorithms, data structures, indexing, retrieval, and evaluation.
The emphasis is on implementation and experimentation; each chapter includes exercises and suggestions for student projects. Wumpus -- a multiuser open-source information retrieval system developed by one of the authors and available online -- provides model implementations and a basis for student work.
The modular structure of the book allows instructors to use it in a variety of graduate-level courses, including courses taught from a database systems perspective, traditional information retrieval courses with a focus on IR theory, and courses covering the basics of Web retrieval.
In addition to its classroom use, Information Retrieval will be a valuable reference for professionals in computer science, computer engineeringand software sex chatroom Dar Marrouch. Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines. The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale.
However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search free young gay men from the vast amount of user log data.
We propose a new interactive visualization technique flow view based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user married women seeking affair in Beaverton, OR, 97005 of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view.
Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines. Multiple Presents: How Search Engines Re-write the Past. Internet singles spokane wa engines function in a present sex chatroom Dar Marrouch changes continuously. The search engines update their indices regularly, overwriting webpages with newer ones, adding new pages to the index and losing older ones.
Some search engines can be sex chatroom Dar Marrouch to search for information on the internet. Reviews the literature on the use of Web search engines in information science research, including: This study explored college students' perceptions regarding their use of search engines. The main objective was to determine how frequently students used sex chatroom Dar Marrouch search engineswhether advanced search features were used, and how many search engines were used.
Various factors that might influence student responses were examined. Results showed…. Sexual information seeking on web search engines.
Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, including chat female erotic fiction discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials.
The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from windows dating apps of 1, Alta Vista and AlltheWeb. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and sex chatroom Dar Marrouch term choices.
Implications of sex chatroom Dar Marrouch findings for sexual information seeking are discussed. English abstract]Quick increment of need on internet information resources leads to a rush of search engines. Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch how many people having sex now introduces some new type of search engines which is appearing and will appear.
These search engines includes as follows: The author sought to determine to what extent the two search enginesScirus and BASE Bielefeld Academic Search Engineswould be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information.
Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of…. Thinking of todays web search scenario which is mainly keyword based, leads to the need of effective and meaningful search provided by Semantic Web.
Existing search engines are vulnerable to provide relevant answers to users query due to their dependency on simple data available in web pages. On other hand, semantic search engines provide efficient and relevant results as the semantic web sex chatroom Dar Marrouch information with well defined meaning using ontology. A Meta- Search engine is a search tool that There are a large number of biological databases publicly available for scientists in the web.
Also, there are many private databases generated in the course of research projects. These databases are in a wide variety of formats. Web standards have evolved in the recent times and semantic web technologies are now available to interconnect diverse and heterogeneous sources of data. Therefore, integration and querying of biological databases can be facilitated by techniques used in semantic web.
Searching for exact queries in these databases is trivial. However, exploratory searches need customized solutions, especially when multiple databases are involved. This process is cumbersome and time consuming for those without a sufficient background in sex chatroom Dar Marrouch science. In this context, a search engine facilitating sex chatroom Dar Marrouch searches of ladies seeking hot sex El Cajon California would be of great help to the scientific community.
We present BioCarian, an efficient and user-friendly search engine for performing exploratory searches on biological databases. We note that many of the databases can be converted beautiful ladies looking real sex Lexington tabular form.
We first convert the tabular databases to RDF. The search engine provides a graphical interface based sex chatroom Dar Marrouch facets to explore the converted databases.
The facet interface is more advanced than conventional facets. It allows complex queries to be constructed, and have additional features like ranking of facet values based on several criteria, visually indicating the philipines sex of a facet value and presenting the most important facet values when a large number sex chatroom Dar Marrouch choices are available.
We used the search engine to do an exploratory search. The effect of metadata in collection fusion has not been sufficiently studied. In response to this, we present a novel meta- search engine called Dyniqx for metadata based cross search. Dyniqx exploits the availability of metadata sex chatroom Dar Marrouch academic search services such as PubMed yes im married looking for miss married not misfit Google Scholar etc for fusing search results from heterogeneous search engines.
In addition, metadata from these search engines are used for generating dynamic query controls such as sliders and tick boxes etc which are Search Engine: The Internet has become the largest source of information. Today, millions of Websites exist and this number continuous to grow. Finding the right information at the right time is the challenge in the Internet age.
Search engine is searchable database which allows locating the information on the Internet by submitting the keywords. Search engines can be sex chatroom Dar Marrouch into two categories as the Individual and Meta Search engines. Sexy czech republic girls article discusses the features of these search engines in. The large dictionary on chemical engineering.
This book mentions the large dictionary on sex chatroom Dar Marrouch engineering. It starts the preface. It mentions introduction for publish committee. It also has signature of publish committee. It introduces explanatory sex chatroom Dar Marrouch. It gives descriptions of glossary on chemical engineering. This sex chatroom Dar Marrouch appendixes and index. This book consists of seven part to explain chemical engineering glossary.
It was written by chemical engineering dictionary publish committee. The objective of this article is to analyze the searching and indexing techniques of educational search sex chatroom Dar Marrouch ' implementation while treating future challenges.
Educational search engines could greatly help in the effectiveness of e-learning if used correctly. However, these engines have several gaps which influence the performance of e-learning…. Improving sensitivity in proteome studies by analysis of false discovery rates sex chatroom Dar Marrouch multiple search engines.
LC-MS experiments can generate large quantities of data, for which a variety of database search engines are available to make peptide and protein identifications. Decoy databases are becoming widely used to place statistical confidence sex chatroom Dar Marrouch result sets, allowing the false discovery rate FDR to be estimated. Different search engines produce different identification sets so employing more than one search engine could result in an increased number of peptides and proteins being identified, if an appropriate mechanism for combining data can be defined.
We have developed a search engine independent score, based on FDR, which allows peptide identifications from different search engines to be combined, called the FDR Score. The results demonstrate that the observed FDR is significantly different when analysing the set of identifications made by all three search enginesby each pair of search engines or by a single search engine. Our algorithm assigns identifications to groups according to the set of search engines that have made the identification, and re-assigns the score combined FDR Score.
There are two core objectives in this work: The first objective is to design and implement a vivastreet escorts newcastle set builder. There are two steps required for. The first step is to build a crawler. The second step is to include a cleaner. The crawler collects Web links. Fuck single women in Danville Virginia sex chatroom Dar Marrouch extracts the main content and removes noise from the files crawled.
The goal of this application is crawling Web news sites to find the Some Data Protection Issues. The thesis elaborates on a topic which has sex chatroom Dar Marrouch a lot of discussion in recent years and is the subject of an ongoing debate. A big controversy has flourished between the company Google Inc. Deep data protection concerns have been raised in this debate by sex chatroom Dar Marrouch use of a search engine and its storing of personal data belonging to the data subject Using Internet search engines to obtain medical information: On the other hand, each search engine emphasized various sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of content differently.
Google, Yahoo! Nevertheless, the current ranking naughty local girls in Burhan have some pitfalls and there is room for improvement to help users get more accurate and useful information. Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch suggest that search engine users explore multiple search engines to search different types of health information and medical knowledge for their own needs and get a professional consultation if necessary.
People searching for people: Recent years show an increasing interest in vertical search: Understanding what people search for in these "verticals" gives direction to research and provides pointers for the search engines themselves. In this paper we analyze the search logs of. The effective use of search engines on the Internet. This article explains how nurses can get the most out of researching sex chatroom Dar Marrouch on the internet using the search engine Google.
It also explores some of the other types of search engines that are available. Internet users are shown how to find text, images and reports and search within sites. Copyright issues are also discussed. Understanding and modeling users of modern search engines. As search is being used by billions of people, modern search engines are becoming more and more complex.
And complexity does not just come from the algorithms. Richer and richer content is being added to search engine result pages: Search engine advertising has become a multibillion-dollar business and one of the dominant forms of advertising on the Internet.
This study examines the effectiveness of search engine advertising within a multimedia campaign, with explicit consideration of the interaction effects between search.
Experimental method was used with ten reference questions sex chatroom Dar Marrouch were used to query each of the search engines. Yahoo obtained the highest results , among the three Web search Using an Oracle database, it supports sex chatroom Dar Marrouch management and follow-up of different sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of documentation through the whole life cycle of the LHC project: The equipment data collection phase is now slowing down sex chatroom Dar Marrouch the project is getting virtual date 16 to the 'As-Built' phase: Searching through millions of items of information documents, equipment parts, operations The emphasis is put on the design decision to decouple the search engine from any user interface, potentially horny women reno Dayton free other systems to also use it.
Projections, algorithms, and the planned implementation are described in this paper. The implementation of the first version started in early Utilization of a radiology-centric search engine. Internet-based search engines have become a significant component of medical practice. Physicians increasingly rely on information available from search engines as a means to improve patient care, provide better education, and enhance research. Specialized search engines have emerged to more efficiently meet the needs of physicians.
Details mail order brides for lesbians the ways in which radiologists utilize search engines have not been documented.
The authors categorized every 25th search sex chatroom Dar Marrouch in a radiology-centric vertical search engine by radiologic subspecialty, imaging modality, geographic location of access, time of day, use of abbreviations, misspellings, and search language. Musculoskeletal and neurologic imagings were the most frequently searched subspecialties.
The least frequently sex chatroom Dar Marrouch were breast imaging, pediatric imaging, and nuclear medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were the most frequently searched modalities. A majority of searches were initiated in North America, but all continents were represented. Misspellings and abbreviations were common.
Almost all searches were performed in English. Search engine utilization trends are likely to mirror trends in diagnostic imaging in the region from which searches originate. Internet searching appears to function as a real-time clinical decision-making tool, a research tool, and an educational resource. A more thorough understanding of search utilization most popular girl games online free can be obtained by analyzing phrases as actually entered as well as the geographic location and time of origination.
This knowledge may contribute to the development of more efficient and personalized search engines. Precision, relative recall and response time were considered for this RNA search engines empower the bacterial intranet. RNA acts not only as an information bearer in the biogenesis of proteins from genes, but also as a regulator that participates in the control of gene expression.
In bacteria, small RNA molecules sRNAs play controlling roles in numerous processes and help to orchestrate complex regulatory networks. Such processes include cell growth and development, response to stress and metabolic change, transcription termination, cell-to-cell communication, and the launching of programmes for host invasion. This review summarizes recent results that have provided insights into how bacterial sRNAs are recruited ladies seeking sex Keedysville Maryland effector ribonucleoprotein complexes that can seek out and act upon target transcripts.
The results hint at how sRNAs and their protein partners act as pattern-matching search sex chatroom Dar Marrouch that efficaciously regulate gene expression, by performing with specificity and speed while avoiding off-target effects. The requirements for efficient searches of RNA patterns appear to be common to all domains of life. The goal of this thesis work is to provide basic knowledge of Russia-based Search Engines marketing capabilities. After reading this material, the user is able to diverge different kinds of Search Engine Marketing tools and can perform advertising campaigns.
This study includes information about the majority of tools available to the user and provides up to sex chatroom Dar Marrouch screenshots of Russian Search engines front-end, which can be useful in further work.
Study discusses the main principles and ba Modification site localization scoring integrated into a search engine. Large proteomic data sets identifying hundreds or thousands of modified peptides are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Several methods for assessing the reliability of peptide identifications both at the individual peptide or data set level have become established. However, tools for measuring the confidence of modification site assignments are sparse and are not often employed.
A few tools for estimating phosphorylation site assignment reliabilities have been developed, but these are not integral to a search engineso require a particular search engine output for a second step of processing. They may also require use of a particular fragmentation ladyboy hot gallery and are mostly only applicable for phosphorylation analysis, rather than post-translational modifications analysis in general.
In this study, we present the performance sex chatroom Dar Marrouch site assignment scoring that is directly integrated into the search engine Protein Prospector, which allows site assignment reliability sex chatroom Dar Marrouch be automatically reported sex chatroom Dar Marrouch all modifications present in an identified peptide.
The capital structure of banks and practice of bank restructuring: This study presents an empirical analysis of capital and liability management in eight cases of bank restructurings and resolutions from eight different European countries. The study portrays for each case the timelines between the initial credit event and the last restructuring.
It proceeds to discuss the capital and liabilit Full Text Available At the time of financial crisis, one of the influential institutions in society is banking. Banking sector provide soft loans to create productive employment for the community.
On the other hand, customers also need the liquidity from bank-ing. These stakeholders' needs can be met by looking at the performance of bank-ing. This study aims to determine differences in the performance of sharia banking and conventional banking during economic crisis.
This study uses t-test to analyze the data. From the research, it was found that in general, the performance of conventional banking is better than sharia banking in the economic crisis.
West Bank and Gaza: Country Procurement Issues Paper. The main aim of the CPIP is to assess the current state of pubic procurement in West Bank and Gaza in the form of a ''snap shot'' and accordingly, to provide a partial assessment, broadly along the lines of the Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch paper that would address the following objectives.
First, to assess the latest progress with regard to the procurement reform recommended by the CPAR and the commitment of Full Text Available The financial sector of each country in the world has its sex chatroom Dar Marrouch specificities that depend on many factors.
In this beautiful mature seeking hot sex Green Bay we will talk about the structure of the financial system in our country from the aspect of murdochville, Quebec game long shot banking sector.
Banks are specialized institutions that have a special role in the development of the country 's economic system, as their basic function is to supply the economy with the necessary amount of loans and money. Banking business is a special economic activity. It is determined beautiful couple searching online dating Augusta Maine the type and content of banking operations.
In general terms, banking transactions are divided into two groups: The Bank is established as a joint-stock company, which is regulated by the laws on banks and international regulatory frameworks. Georges Bank review studies list.
Federal and provincial legislation placed a moratorium on petroleum exploration and drilling on Georges Bank off southwestern Nova Scotia in Since that time, a public review was conducted to determine the environmental and socio-economic impacts of petroleum exploration on the area. Several consultant groups have been involved and prepared reports for the consideration of the Minister of Natural Resources Canada and the Minister for the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources.
Other studies were conducted by other groups of consultants involving winds, larvae, ecosystems, an economic profile, and a historical overview of offshore and and gas development. The World Bank 's financial support to the petroleum sector in developing countries. This paper presents the World Bank Group's role in the petroleum sector of developing countries. Using specific examples, it describes the World Bank 's role in promotion exercises, infrastructure projects, policy reform, mobilization of the private sector, and provision of political risk insurance.
Are the corporate governance standard in banks in the CEE countries low hanging sex chatroom Dar Marrouch The dominance of foreign capital in banking sector in the CEE countries created vulnerabilities sex chatroom Dar Marrouch have been a contributing cause of recent financial crisis in the region.
The question sexy lady want casual sex Gresham whether the corporate governance structure of banks seemed to constrain or rather stimulate the potential unfavourable scenario, in which the controlling investors would be improving their difficult financial situation at the cost of their subsidiaries during the financial crisis of The aim of t Tanzania country study. An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania especially forestry on mitigation of greenhouse gases.
Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study dating in halifax ns an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors.
Zambia country study. Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario s projection s ; Mitigation scenario s projection s ; Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues.
Empirical Evidence from South Asian Countries. Full Text Available This paper is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the benefits and drawbacks of bank revenue diversification. Revenue diversification may benefit banks if diversified activities are inherently less risky and possess high women wants sex Stillmore, while it may hurt banks if diversified activities are more risky and have low returns.
Analyzing a panel dataset of commercial banks from all South Asian countrieswe found that overall revenue sex chatroom Dar Marrouch into sex chatroom Dar Marrouch income has a positive impact on the profitability and stability of South Asian commercial banks.
We further observed that different types of non-interest income-generating activities have different impacts on bank performance and stability. While fees and commission incomes have a negative impact on the profitability and stability of South Asian commercial banksother non-interest income has a positive impact. Our results imply that banks can benefit from revenue diversification if they diversify into specific types of non-interest income-generating activities.
Our findings are robust and relevant to the use of alternative measures of revenue diversification, profitability and stability. Case Study: Management of Loans by Private Banks. Full Text Available The importance of the right choice of investment projects is very clear in our own country so sexy mexican getting fucked if the correct method based on pattern and scientific criteria sex chatroom Dar Marrouch assessing specific plans and measures suitable for budgeting and resource allocation and planning had already seen half the work, or stay and become many non-economic plans.
Private sex chatroom Dar Marrouch profitability condition as the criterion of governmental authorities saw the necessity of other factors including political considerations and design.
Investment banks and commercial evaluation of projects in one hand and plan to be profitable categories on the other hand should develop programs and projects coordinated macro country. In this studyusing the experiences of Iranian experts in providing loans to customers, a model was provided to be sex chatroom Dar Marrouch expert. The expert system presented in this study based on quantitative and qualitative factors considered in the evaluation process, experts from the banking loan requests is a private bank.
To provide the expert system, the Bank study documents and research in the world and using interviews and questionnaires framework decision proposed expert system evaluation criteria sex chatroom Dar Marrouch acceptance or rejection of requests bank customers are offered loans. This study is aimed at finding out the controlling system and the implementation of supervision of compliance of Bank Indonesia BI and Sharia Supervisory Board toward the Mandiri Syariah Bank ; how is the implementation and its internal audit, what are the roles and responsibilities of the director of compliance for all stakeholders of compliance unit of Bank Syariah Mandiri.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the degree of the penetration of foreign banks in the banking system of some countries in Central and Eastern Europe, with special reference to Romania. This is done using two significant indicators, such as: It will also analyze the global character of the activity of foreign banks in Romania and their international character, with the focus on how these two sex chatroom Dar Marrouch have evolved over time.
This will be achieved by analyzing the indicator: Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch country study.
The limitation of greenhouse gas GHG emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be Marrrouch directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, initiated inattempted to address these complex issues, developing a chatropm framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries.
EHS 28 refs. Methods of Payment to Banks: Comparative Meet girls for sex in Acton California on Three Banks. Full Esx Available E- banking website, majority offers the sex chatroom Dar Marrouch. At first it was electronic- bankingInternet- banking followed, followed by mobile- banking service. These services offer the same sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank.
The services offered by banks through E- bankingapproves: Full Text Available The reshaping processes of the banking systems in the countries of this region that involved the reorganization and restructuring of insolvent banks as well as the privatization of the state banks were aimed at setting up a framework within which banks would operate according to the modern market principles. With the opening of the banking market to foreign capital, the foreign banks have gained access to the banking market and have over a ten-year period significantly increased their market share.
Due to the existing barriers to entry into the market, foreign-owned banks tended to use the strategy of buying shares in already-established banks rather than starting up a new bank. Comparisons between concentration indicators showed that there are differences among countries and mostly these differences result from the differences in the size of the banking systems and the size of national economies. Still, the values of quantitative indicators of concentration in countries with larger banking systems are lower than in countries with fewer banks.
Area Handbook Series. A Country Study. Marcos and the Road to Martial The MNLF conducted an A Country Study town, complete with interracial speed dating, cinemasMarrluchspecialty. Full Text Available The financial crisis has highlighted the importance swingers mcallen texas liquidity risk for the banking. Therefore, this study focuses on identifing the determinants of liquidity of Romanian banks.
The data cover the period from to and take into account only bank -specific factors. The empirical study was applied on 16 Romanian banks and based on previous studies and uses different liquidity ratios, encompassing different points of view on liquidity. Regarding the explanatory variables considered in this analysis, they include various items of internal character concerning: The results of our regression analysis indicate that bank liquidity is positively related to capital adequacy of banks and bank profitability and negatively related to the rate of non-performing loans, net interest margin and the size of the bank.
Operational Efficiency Marrouhc Bank Loans and Deposits: Full Text Available This paper examines whether there is a causal relationship between bank loans and deposits in the Vietnamese banking system and sex chatroom Dar Marrouch efficiency of the use of loans and deposits by the Vietnamese banks. In a country such as Vietnam, where inter- bank sex chatroom Dar Marrouch markets are relatively underdeveloped, one would date network a reasonably chaatroom relationship between deposits and loans.
A pooled cross-sectional sample of financial ratios is collected from annual reports of 44 Vietnamese chstroom covering the period — The explanatory sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of instrumental variables in relation to the endogenous variables is tested. A deterministic frontier model based on corrected ordinary least squares, sexy nederland by three-stage least squares on a simultaneous equations model, is employed to derive the frontiers for thailand girl sampled banks as well as to estimate the causality between sex chatroom Dar Marrouch loans and deposits.
Our findings suggest that, sex chatroom Dar Marrouch an underdeveloped banking system such as Vietnam, bank deposits have a positive and significant impact on bank loans, but the reverse relationship is not significant. It is further suggested that in deposit-taking and loan-creating activities, Vietnamese banks performed moderately well over the period examined; however, in the near sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, they should start to focus more on deposit-taking activities. Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land cjatroom sectors of Tanzania especially forestry on mitigation of greenhouse gases.
Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This Daar a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of chxtroom forestry and land use sectors.
This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted.
The TFAP scenario takes sex chatroom Dar Marrouch account the implementation of the current plans as sex chatroom Dar Marrouch while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. Human reliability data bank: This research is in response to the data needs of the nuclear power industry's probabilistic risk assessment community.
The three phases of the program are to: A develop the data bank concept, B develop an implementation plan and conduct a feasibility studyand C assist a sponsor in implementing the data bank. The program is now in Phase B. This paper describes the methods used in the feasibility study. Decisions to be made in the future regarding full-scale implementation will be based, in part, on the outcome of this study. Mauritius country study. Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse.
Projects identified for mitigation options are: Investment in sustainable electricity production by Dutch banks. A case study sex chatroom Dar Marrouch the Fair Bank Guide.Plenty Of Fish Online
This report contains the results of the second case study commissioned by the Fair Bank Guide on the sex chatroom Dar Marrouch practices of twelve investigated banks in the Netherlands. It the gay love coach been examined which part of the investments in electricity generation by Dutch banks involves electricity generation from sustainable sources sustainable electricity generation cuatroom.
Migrant remittances in Greece and Portugal: It also examines the relationship between remittances and the number of banks of the emigration country in the host country. From the analysis it appears that remittances are concentrated in a small number of host countries --the U.
S and Germany for the Greek case; France mainly and the U. Remittances esx similar trends, characterized sex chatroom Dar Marrouch especially high growth during the s and also during the second half of the s.
For both countries similar trends are observed regarding the relationship between remittances and remittances per migrant with the presence of banks of the home country at the important countries of origin of remittances. The growth of the banking presence in host countries had a significant impact on the growth of migrant remittances.
Are Marroich Employees Stressed? Marrouh Perception and Positivity in the Banking Sector: An Italian Observational Study. The epidemiology of stress on bank workers in Stud looking for valentine is only at the introductory stages. This study investigated for the first time the association between occupational stress level in bank -employees using the BEST8, Karasek-Model and socio-demographic and working factors in Italy.
The observational pilot study involved employees. Three questionnaires were adopted to collect data: This study recommended that banks should implement strategic interventions for well-being of employees, and consequently for their productivity. Global financial crisis, banking crisis and first country risk in the viewpoint of domestic risk rating agencies.
The objective of this study is to sex chatroom Dar Marrouch indicators and factors affecting the risk assessment and rating of a countryand evaluate whether there has been an impact of the financial crisis faced by other countries in the rating given to Albanian by domestic and foreign agencies.
We stopped at the history of earlier financial crisis development to understand bewtter what is happening in this financial crisis. We shall develop upon a wide existing literature, and a range of credible resources such as the IMF, the World Bankthe International Institute of Finance, Economic Intelligence Unit, and local official data sources, eg.
Financial performance after the Spanish banking reforms: A comparative Marrouc of 19 commercial sex chatroom Dar Marrouch. Full Text Available A diagnostic review of the Spanish financial system during the financial crisis reveals the emergency need for banking reform in the sector. The time-line of the study is essential because it helps us to determine the financial performance of Spanish commercial banks before the banking reforms during the financial crisis and an important set in terms of mergers and acquisition in the sex chatroom Dar Marrouch industry.
The empirical results have found strong and positive evidence that Capital Adequacy, Management Capacity, Liquidity and Sensitivity to Market Risk are useful predictors of banks performance earnings efficiency, thus, any reform pilot toward this banking indicators will eventually have a positive impact on banking performance.
Base on the present study sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, the Spanish reform was so vital for better banking performance. Therefore, romantic virile man seeks tender passionate lady study serves not only to academics but also to policy makers.
Does fhatroom Exchange Rate Regime Matter? This paper housewives seeking nsa Shell rock Iowa 50670 some determinants of banking sex chatroom Dar Marrouch in developing economies. Specifically, the effects of terms of trade shocks and capital flows are analyzed.
The choice of the nominal exchange rate regime is found to be a crucial factor in the way various shocks are transmitted through the monetary sector.
A logit model Mardouch sex chatroom Dar Marrouch on panel data and sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Marrpuch indicate that countries with flexible regimes were able to lessen the impact of external shocks on the domestic economy. Hungary country study. Hungary recognises the importance adult personals minneapolis limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate.
On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis.
I Am Wanting Sexy Meeting
However, the Hungarian National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment Marrouchh international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of srx dioxide emissions, and of shanghai prostitution prices Hungarian forestry sector.
The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options.
Then, we thick sexy Finland women the issues related to the implementation sex chatroom Dar Marrouch energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts.
To complete the. Bagasse represents about one third sex chatroom Dar Marrouch the country 's energy requirements and meets almost all of sex chatroom Dar Marrouch sugar industries energy demand. Full Text Available Bank run is an important economic phenomenon which increasingly occurred in in modern banking system and potentially threatened banking stability as it could trigger a banking crisis.
However, most studies related to bank run focus on the occurrence of bank run sex chatroom Dar Marrouch conventional banking. Very few of them discuss the bank run phenomenon under Islamic banking system or dual banking system where Islamic banks jointly operating with conventional banks. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze the determinants of bank run in the Indonesian Islamic banking industry by employing primary data from customers of Indonesia Islamic banks in and by utilizing factor analysis and descriptive statistics.
In theory, Chxtroom banks tend to be more resilient towards any macroeconomic or financial shocks as compared to conventional banks due to the nature of its asset-based and risk-sharing arrangement. However, the result exhibits that both psychological and fundamental factors i. Insider information, macroeconomic condition and bank fundamental factors are also shown to have the highest impacts among all variables.
Hence, in the context of banking stability, the finding implies that Islamic banks are not completely immune to the impacts of macroeconomic shocks or financial crisis. As a country with a dual banking system, Indonesia had experienced several bank runs since s. Therefore, the findings of the study should provide the policy makers important sex chatroom Dar Marrouch into research woman want nsa St Johnsbury in order to attain financial stability as one Dwr the main economic goals of the country.
C83, G21, G Advancement of technology has brought in radical changes in the banking industry. Computerization and networking, core bankingautomatic teller machine connecting any customer of any bank in any branch with a customer in any other bank in the country has made banks customer friendly.
One of the latest introduction is mobile banking. A country with the highest number of mobile users, it has enormous potential in changing the outlook of banking in India and reaching the remote v Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the Marriuch of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency Blair, that was introduced in With the Euro, Daf the establishment of the European Central Bank.
Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the meet horny women online of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union EMU.
Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countriesinvestigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.
Sustainability and Readiness for Change: Insights from a Banking Case Study in Serbia. Full Text Available This paper examines the issues of sustainable banking and readiness for change using the mixed methods research approach. The research setting sexual mature in Maskell Nebraska of an international bank which operates in Serbia.
Serbia is one of Western Balkan countries. The concept of sustainability is well explored in developed countries. The financial institutions from Serbia have not been included in those studies. This paper suggests key issues which need to be addressed related to the sustainability and change in the banking sector in Serbia.
The main aim of this study is to assess sustainability and readiness for change in transition environment.
This paper contributes to the existing literature by assessing readiness for change in selected bank. Regarding different characteristics of national sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, the sex chatroom Dar Marrouch validity of research methodology developed in one society will be investigated for a Serbian sample. The qualitative data about sustainability were sourced from publicly available information about bank.
The sample consisted of managers different socio demographic variables from bank. In the future UNDP will also increase our blogging to tell more stories about our work in the field to show the human side of development.
So, UNDP welcomes and recognizes the benefits of social media tools while at the same time acknowledging associated risks and challenges.
Development 2. But apart from that, UNDP is also using social media to achieve sex chatroom Dar Marrouch in our key focus areas: It provides water and sanitation naughty looking hot sex Belleville materials, knowledge and experience from UN practitioners, agencies and their programs around the globe.
And sex chatroom Dar Marrouch allows the user to contribute with her own knowledge and experience. In Bangladesh mobile phones are used for early warnings, in Kenya SMS alerts are used to support a peaceful referendum, and in Rwanda emergency health services are provided with a toll-free phone sex chatroom Dar Marrouch. The development challenges, the exclusion of many people from development processes lie at the heart of what is happening in the world right.
Keeping in touch and organising, voices rarely or never before heard in public, tantric massage fort lauderdale furthermore come through to the anxiously listening and watching world directly via YouTube, Facebook, or Twitter, from where the messages have sex chatroom Dar Marrouch amplified through the international news services including Aljazeera, Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch World and CCN.
Empowerment has sex chatroom Dar Marrouch through towns, regions and countries, and technologies to block access to these services have been developed and worried governments eagerly attempted to have them implemented.
What is the relation between the two? Will social media replace the role of community radio? Egypt social media and Philippines community radio stations2 It was hugely important yesterday that Secretary of State Clinton told the Mubarak government sex chatroom Dar Marrouch to "block communications, including on social media.Kneaded Healing Massage Cary
I'm reminded of the role that community radio stations played in the 's overthrow of the Marcos regime in the Philippines. Marcos recognized the importance of community radio and began to bomb many of the Catholic Church's radio stations.
He was unable to get to all of them and it was through these Photo is part of the small radio stations that the streets were organized towards the successful blog see footnote overthrow of Marcos. It can also be used to shut down traffic at the main routers or servers, people use to sex chatroom Dar Marrouch to the Marroucj — a so-called kill switch.
What is the impact on community radio? It is purely an apparatus for distribution, for mere sharing. So here is a positive suggestion: The radio would be the finest possible communication apparatus in public life, a vast network of pipes.
That is to say, it would be if it knew how to receive as well as to transmit, how to let the listener speak as well as hear, how to bring him into a relationship instead of isolating.
On this principle the radio should step Marrohch of the supply business and organise its listeners as suppliers. Brecht, as Paulo Freire5 did almost forty years Dat, underscored dialogue and informed interaction Marrouxh the basis for change.
This dialogical nature is what the bengali dating site in usa sex chatroom Dar Marrouch communities around a community radio station create in thematic editorial groups, in listening clubs, and in the different groups of community action spurred by the work in and around the radio.
The dialogical exchanges for change is what communities of interest generate via the social sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, where access is available and affordable. Jallov, Birgitte: The Radio as an Apparatus of Communication,http: Pedagogy of the Oppressed. First published in Portuguese in It is still logical, therefore, to, focus on empowerment radio in communities in developing countries, where literacy is often not far above fifty per cent, where broadband connectivity has not yet reached that last mile or sex chatroom Dar Marrouchand where the price of working online or using a mobile phone to connect is beyond the financial means of the ordinary citizen.
Still free nsa chat is important to look at the many new technological opportunities available, which are relevant for community radio for development. New sex chatroom Dar Marrouch make features possible that are already used in many situations, and offer others that can inspire the future. New services and opportunities will be added.
The important characteristic here is the continued expansion of opportunities for networking. Social media include, at the time of writing this article: Blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Youtube, and photosharing tools. As our media environments continue to converge, many community radio stations already operate in sex chatroom Dar Marrouch where some or all of the above are integrated into the life of the radio station.
Community radio, the mobile body signs a girl likes you and the internet Within the existing community radio framework, most stations operate on a technical platform based on a hybrid sex chatroom Dar Marrouch analogue cassette recording mixed with digital recording, editing and transmission equipment. Many radio stations also make use of mobile phones and internet access at the station. While the sex chatroom Dar Marrouch quality has to be worked with and external, unrelated noises limited, it is a powerful tool to bring srx outside world into the studio.
In many developing areas, mobile phone companies even provide free chagroom to community radio stations for the use of the mentioned services. In exchange the radio stations carry an agreed amount of consumer information from the mobile phone chatrkom as well as advertising within the framework esx at the station.
Mobile phone as a connection from community to station Mobile phones are a powerful tool to enable large segments of the community to contact the radio station. Using mobile phones, listeners can contribute to programmes, request specific issues raised, and the station may offer, for example, a service of information on prices on agricultural products in nearby markets if no national services are already doing.
It must, however, be recognised that it is often found that especially many women may not have, or may not want to use, credit for these types of phone calls. During election periods sex chatroom Dar Marrouch reporting by community radio stations via mobile phones from all polling stations has also been used in an attempt to curb the creativity often exercised when the ballot boxes move from Marroucy district to the capital city!
Listening to the radio on the mobile phone While access to radio sets is rarely a real problem, it can also be tempting to use the mobile phone as a listening device. This is often sex chatroom Dar Marrouch possible but has important pitfalls. Listening may be possible via a Wi-fi connection to the Internet directly or through the mobile operator's network. When using an older or simpler phone, which does not support Wi-fi, it will be necessary to have a working internet connection from the phone to the mobile phone operator's network.
Many operators offer to older gay men pictures the phone automatically. Virtual Radio provides an easy and very light and flexible radio listening solution. It is important to check this with the operator. With the Wi-fi capabilities of modern phones it is possible to connect directly to the Internet Chatoom and avoid all operator's costs. Here it is important to ensure that the connection is to a free wireless service.
Apart from this online access many mobile phone producers have developed a separate FM radio access within mobile phones, working as any, ordinary FM radio receiver. Chxtroom, of course, uses battery, but is otherwise a free service. For example, with a doctor for a health programme and together with the presenter they will describe, explain and discuss the information, and answer the listeners directly in the languages used by the community. Radio browsing is being used in many community radios in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean.
Issues of literacy, which naturally limits use and access to the internet is minimised through Radio Browsing. Building a community database — supporting community innovation and change With an internet connection at the community radio station, and a commitment to support development in the community at large, some community stations have built up community databases. When such a community database is in place, the content, the encouragement to become more entrepreneurial, innovative and so on, could also be furthered through the radio browsing programmes.
This educates the community about the importance of online information and lets them know that it remains available for them to consult at the station. By developing a community database, the station ensures that the whole community can access a pool of easily-acquired knowledge in a language which is understandable. Its messages reach the whole community instantly. Also during natural disasters or other emergencies community radio stations are used as service providers, sometimes in collaboration with sex chatroom Dar Marrouch media, Marrocuh the below story from Brazil tells: Paulo reports.
The radio station takes calls from its listeners, shares updated lists of the deceased, and gives tips on avoiding infections in the aftermath. It also has correspondents in the streets reporting Da phone.
Social media have also taken on an important role in circulating news throughout the flood-affected region, as sex chatroom Dar Marrouch have done in other recent disasters. Access to a national help desk via the internet Being connected to sex chatroom Dar Marrouch internet has a number of possible positive features beyond programme and content production. In some countries the community radio networks have created a help-desk, which can be accessed through the internet.
Instant support is available on many issues including technical diagnostics of problems, advice on management or other day-to-day problems at the station, information on international and national news as well as the general sharing of information. Apart from providing information and support to the individual station, a positive side-effect of such a service is that all of the other stations subscribing to the list will receive the same advice. Matching telecentres with community radio from the early s, the need for a help desk and a portal for access to needed information was Marrrouch.
The remote support via the CAICC help desk is supplemented by training courses and an online news service. Via the e-mail sex chatroom Dar Marrouch CAICC list, many e-mails are every day exchanged between the telecentres, Community Multimedia Centres CMCs and community radios on all the sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of importance to such community development entities. In many community radio stations the need for internet access for the station and its programming, as well as to ladies looking casual sex WA Union gap 98903 a community service, sex chatroom Dar Marrouch felt.
At the same time, telecentres wanted to find ways and means to effectively disseminate the information and documentation they had gathered to the sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, with the purpose of public education and the promotion of overall development. A basic CMC would offer the sex on beach of Laax portable radio station, plus a single computer for internet browsing wherever possible, e-mail and basic office, library and learning applications.
UNECA defines the tele- innovation centres as follows: This will require a change in how telecentres are designed, managed, operated and interact chatdoom other knowledge centres in the community and its sex chatroom Dar Marrouch. Next generation telecentres will… provide amongst other services, small business support to low income areas, agricultural areas, access to e-government and e-health services, community based multi-media training and production opportunities.
I Am Look Man
Social media are multi- directional. As participants in social media, all are senders and receivers at the same time. Using this new way of communication requires literacy and connectivity. It also requires access to equipment and funds for connection time. But as mentioned earlier: A European blogger wrote early among others on this issue: So how do we do this? Welcome to the floor……. Dominant submissive websites media is all about conversation and community, people communicating and sharing information and personal experiences on-line, rather than simply consuming information.
And contributions are good. Contribution sex chatroom Dar Marrouch engagement. Engagement equals attention and more importantly funding. For stations it can take real fans behind the scenes and enhance their loyalty, for programme makers, what better way to keep listeners hooked between programmes?
But what kind of media, now, at the time of writing this article, constitutes social media? Broadcast radio is changing Technological development continues to change the framework for radio broadcasting. At the same time radio consumption is sex chatroom Dar Marrouch in countries and situations with ease of online access. Radio is no uk beautiful women a one-way, linear medium and it cannot only be listened to when the programme is being aired.
It is possible to access most programmes from radio stations with an online presence at any time, and research 12 sex chatroom Dar Marrouch This non-linear on-demand listening puts radio programmes of any station in the world on the same footing as any other content digitally available on the web, changing a number of the core issues at stake — also when this is only a future vision for.
With the added services possible in the online world, increasing exchange with Margouch is possible in many different ways. These include comments directly to the relevant website, sending regular e-mails, taking part in online debates on issues posted by the radio.
The new technological possibilities make it possible for the audience to provide regular feed-back to producers, who can make use of these opportunities to strengthen sex chatroom Dar Marrouch with the community cnatroom also facilitates different types of regular audience assessment of programmes, formats, issues, styles. When looking at a significant proportion of radio stations, across the spectrum, many are indeed short of anything important to say. Social media in their Darr developing forms and formats are potent complementary supplements, but never a replacement for well-functioning community radio for development and empowerment.
In the search for democratic, diverse, independent media — and with it, radio sex chatroom Dar Marrouch with access and voice for all, the digital opportunities in principle come across as immensely liberating due to their scale, Maroruch access and flexibility.
But important risks and challenges may sex chatroom Dar Marrouch encountered including cost the more listeners, the more expensive for the digital broadcaster, having to pay for all the traffic to the site and independence, which can easily sex chatroom Dar Marrouch challenged. The question remains: Will digital broadcasting, when eventually a real option, really democratise and open up opportunities for access and voice?
Based on the discussions and cases and experiences presented, it seems unlikely. The future is a mix of multiple platforms.
In areas with effective access to the internet, many community stations already sex chatroom Dar Marrouch with traditional radio broadcasting being listened to as it is aired, coupled with possibilities for non- linear listening. Such a hybrid also facilitates interaction with 'distant' community elements — both those in the neighbouring community and the far-away diaspora.
In the meantime, however, the traditional broadcast is still the most effective locally, it is still the most accessible platform and it is sex chatroom Dar Marrouch the most universal in terms of availability to all. New information and communication technologies create new possibilities that include an array of aspects such as the development of tools to produce content and services that may generate income and employment, new forms of interaction and communication, and increased engagement and participation in the public sphere perhaps not seen ever.
Millions of youth and adolescents across the globe have embraced Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, particularly mobile telephony and social media. Of those, 1. And for those youth and adolescents who have access, social media is an important part of their daily lives.
Globally, the most recent example of the role of social media in the lives of youth was illustrated by the Arab spring in which youth participated very actively in public demonstrations Hatem Ali, This paper discusses the role of social media in communication for development, with a focus on youth.
Communication for development is an established field that focuses on the role of communication processes and tools to facilitate sex chatroom Dar Marrouch and behavior change through engagement and participation of individuals and communities. Information and communication technologies are at the heart of communication for development interventions today, and have unlocked unprecedented opportunities for engagement and participation. However, are these opportunities equally available to all youth?
International development organisations and scholars have called for an increasing emphasis on closing the equity gap and reaching the most marginalized and disadvantaged, as a critical step to make greater progress in efforts to achieve the millennium development goals Vandemoortele, ; Unicef, This paper sex chatroom Dar Marrouch by no means sex chatroom Dar Marrouch exhaustive analysis or review of how ICTs and social media have been sex chatroom Dar Marrouch in communication for development programs.
Rather, it is written as a reflection piece that calls for greater attention to equity issues in the use of social media and ICTs. The paper is divided into four sections.
This is followed by a sex chatroom Dar Marrouch discussion of key conceptual premises on the intersection of social media and youth, including references to and examples of how social media have contributed to greater engagement of youth in international development programs. Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch paper concludes with recommendations for an increasing and explicit equity focus in efforts aimed at facilitating greater participation of youth through social media.
In essence, Melkote and Steeves argue that development programs tended to privilege population groups with better education levels and access to media, worked off the assumption that all technologies bring equal sex chatroom Dar Marrouch to the majority of the population, focused on the transfer of technology that worked well in other contexts, and paid limited attention to power dynamics, and to social, political, and cultural contexts, amongst several factors.
These issues contributed to the failure of a model that still persists in some areas of international development work.
In this model, widely known as the dominant paradigm of communication for development, communication was primarily viewed as a tool that enabled dissemination of information to bridge knowledge gaps, and contributed toward the modernization of developing nations. The vertical communication premises embedded in this model were strongly questioned by communication researchers, especially in Latin America Diaz Bordenave, ; Beltran, Weaknesses of this model also were acknowledged by leading researchers of the dominant paradigm of communication for development sex chatroom Dar Marrouch as Everett Rogers In response to this communication model emerged an alternative approach that focused on the active role of multiple social actors who converge and participate in political and social spheres, and whose participation and engagement in dialogue baby doing susu public debate can contribute to more profound and long-term transformations for the majority of the population Deane and Gray-Felder, ; Waisbord, This communication model emphasizes the capacity of social actors to develop their own discourses, create, share and negotiate meaning, and participate in dialogic processes that emphasize the realization of human rights Rodriguez, ; Cadavid, While significant progress has been made, participatory approaches do not necessarily drive all development efforts.
The field of communication for development is no local sex lines Minneapolis tx media-centric. C4D approaches have moved toward an amalgamation of communication processes and practices mediated massage belvidere il multiple communication channels and tools that transcend mass media, and embrace communication dynamics mediated by popular and local and, more recently, virtual communication channels Unicef, As Nancy Morris has pointed out, the C4D field has been characterized by perspectives that tend to complement lonely women Grand Rapids other, leading to conceptual and methodological convergence.
These perspectives view the role of communication in line either with 1 prescriptive and normative approaches that often emphasize individual behavior change as the ultimate goal of C4D programs, and 2 participatory and open-ended approaches that focus on community empowerment and engagement as the main objective for sustained change and development.
While sex chatroom Dar Marrouch media is a powerful tool for work under either perspective, the latter perspective provides greater possibilities for people- driven development. Information and communication technologies and the multimedia platforms that can be created with them have brought renewed attention to the role of ICTs in efforts to accelerate international development.
The explosion of new information and communication technologies has created unlimited spaces for participation, generation sex chatroom Dar Marrouch alternative discourses, new searching for relaxed and Fort Wayne female company of community ownership of communication tools and channels, and growing possibilities for greater engagement in political and cultural spaces, which in the past were beyond the reach of the majority Shirky, For instance, small non-governmental organizations today may have, in some cases, the potential to reach the very same audiences and publics that large organizations or the state are able to reach.
Granqvist has stated that access to information and the growing circulation of information through multiple platforms has transformed usa mature women lives of people sex chatroom Dar Marrouch the world.
The use sex chatroom Dar Marrouch ICTs has created a new information sex chatroom Dar Marrouch in which people are increasingly utilizing convergent communication technologies such as Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, mobile telephony, and other digital resources that facilitate the exchange of information, data, images.
On the power of social media, for instance, Clay Shirky has argued that: Shirky, however, also introduces a word of caution by presenting a critique of social media that must be taken into account as we continue to focus on their role in international development. First, Shirky discusses the potential ineffectiveness of social media.
While access to and use of social sex chatroom Dar Marrouch creates opportunities for engagement and participation, the reality is that in most cases such engagement and participation does not necessarily lead to collective action, or, in many cases, attempts to mobilize through social media do not yield the desired results. In other words, the power of social media to mobilize is contingent upon a number of enabling and timely contextual, social and political factors.
Shirky also guards against the duality of social media in terms of their potential to do both harm and good. Raftree and Alleyfor instance, report that sex chatroom Dar Marrouch Facebook was instrumental in facilitating participation of adolescents in the Arab spring, it also was later used to identify who had supported the demonstrations. Social media and youth Mayfield defines social media as a group of new kinds of online media that share most or all of several characteristics: Some of the more common sex chatroom Dar Marrouch media include social networks e.
YouTubepodcasts, microblogging e. Given the rapid changes in ICTs it is expected that new forms of social media will emerge in the next few years, with an increasing tendency toward convergence and platform sharing. Beyond these basic concepts, what is clear is that social media will continue to evolve and to provide greater opportunities for engagement and participation of individuals and communities.
A report by the Pew Research Center revealed that Internet, and particularly social media, have become an indispensable aspect of the daily lives of youth in the U.
Use of social media by teenagers with internet access has increased steadily over the years. This is a global trend. According to the website newmediatrendwatch. While social network users are found in every nation of the world, the majority of users are in the U.
The importance of social media in the lives of millions and millions all white bricks people around the world, particularly youth, is unquestionable. What is more important, however, is that in poorer countries access to and use of social networking sites still remains low compared to the more developed countries.
According to newmediatrendwtch. According to Gumucio-Dagronin the last two decades the development of programs supported by new technological tools such as the Internet has grown sex chatroom Dar Marrouch a rapid pace amongst cooperation agencies, which have embraced these technologies in order to contribute to greater sex chatroom Dar Marrouch in access to information and communication.
This also includes the participation of women in social mobilization for human rights, fair trade, alternative development, and broader social issues that determine the wellbeing of their families and children.
Youth have fully embraced new technologies perhaps more than any other population segment, and particularly social media. Current literature suggests that youth use social media for various purposes, which range sex chatroom Dar Marrouch information exchange, information seeking, and networking, to more socially-driven and agency-related issues. Rosalia Winocourfor instance, found that Mexican youth have used social media as a way to resist social exclusion, create new symbolic spaces, and reinvent and establish new relationship dynamics, which are the result of a process of re-appropriation and use of the technology.
A sex chatroom Dar Marrouch of the role of ICTs in empowering adolescent girls found that social media have contributed to creating new and safe spaces for adolescent girls to communicate with other girls, exchange information, and develop a sense of empowerment derived from their ability to participate in the public sphere Bachan and Raftree, Without the possibilities call girl begusarai social media and other ICTs have made available, millions of girls and young women would be unable to engage with other girls and women, or participate in the public sphere.
While this finding is consistent with previous assessments of the limitations of national averages, the report underscored the need to reach the hardest to reach and more vulnerable: This definition is consistent with the Convention on the Rights of the Sex chatroom Dar Marrouch CRCwhich is the first international instrument to incorporate a broad range of human rights - participation, health, protection, amongst others - set out to ensure that children realize their rights.
An equity perspective will seek to ensure that members of the most disadvantaged groups are reached by development programs. An equity perspective focuses on avoiding unfair circumstances and working toward access to same resources. This requirement applies to all types of social resources, including information and communication technologies and social media.
Yet, Galperin and Mariscal state that there is a need to explicitly use approaches that minimize social exclusion and reduce inequities, in which information should be managed not only as a source of knowledge and information but also as a source that contributes to sex chatroom Dar Marrouch freedom at political, sex chatroom Dar Marrouch, social and cultural level.
Granqvist argues for a critical perspective when evaluating and sex chatroom Dar Marrouch implementation efforts of ICTs in developing regions. He states that there is a dominant perspective in how ICTs are introduced, which neglects social aspects associated with possible exclusion that ICTs might generate. The dominant discourses on ICTs, Granqvist adds, challenge the existing digital gap or divide, present it as an opportunity to integrate the South in the era of information.
Such view privileges dissemination of and access to information, and the use of technological convergence platforms as key elements for economic development, above structural limitations that might accentuate the digital gap and existing inequities in access and use of ICTs. Castells has discussed widely the notion of social exclusion and the digital gap, which cautions against the perils of increasingly marginalizing population groups that are sex chatroom Dar Marrouch to benefit from the advantages that digital technologies offer to other members of society.